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Mar 17

Intermediate Routing FAQ + Answers

Intermediate Routing
1. Qualified-next-hop allows unique pref. values for static routes to the same dest.
2. The default next-hop for aggregate and generated routes is 130.
3. The purpose for the Martian address list is for hosts or network addresses to be ignored.
4. Common uses for routing instances are: creating routing tables (used for filter-based forwarding), VPN services, and system virtualization.

1. The default load balancing behavior when equal cost paths exist is choosing one of the paths over which traffic for the received destination prefixes will be sent
2. Load-balance per packet policy action works by traffic spreading across the active equal cost paths randomly, while the forwarding table performs the load distribution. Each packet that matches a destination route is forwarded across a different outbound interface in a round robin fashion.
3. The instance type that FBF uses is that of inet.0.
4. The purpose of the RIB group when configuring FBF is to resolving the routes installed in the routing instances to directly connected next-hops on that interface.

1. The purpose of OSPF LSAs is to create a complete database of the network.
2. The benefits iof segmenting a large single-area OSPF environment into multiple areas are to facilitate growth and scalability which reduces the size of the LSDB
3. The difference between ABR and ASBR is ABR transmits network info btween the backbone and other areas while ASBR injects routing info from the outside the OSPF AS.
4. Common OSPF area types and their functional considerations: NSSA STUB STUB has no external routes. NSSA allows external routes to be flooded within an area.

1. When a routr receives a BGB route with its own AS number in it’s AS path, AS won’t react as quickly as an IGP.
2. The advantages of loop back peering for IBGP sessions is that if a failure occurs, the sessions will not go down because there will be other working links
3. The default BGP advertisements rules are IBGP peers advertise routes received from EBGP peers to the other IBGP peers. EBGP peers advertise routes learned from IBGP/EBGRP peers to other EBGP peers, but IBGP peers do not advertise routes received from IBGP peers to other IBGP peers.
4. Show route receive-protocol bgp neigh, show route advertising-protocol bgp neigh, show route protocol bgp.

1. Common reasons to use IP tunnels: backup links, connect to a company network, connecting networks together over the internet.
2. Diff. between GRE and IP-IP are when configuring them, the interface forms are different, GRE can connect isolated IPv6 networks, IP-IP encapsulates one packet in another packet.
3. The key requirements for GRE and IP-IP tunnels: A tunnel interface is required on each tunnel endpoint. An end to end communication path is required.
4. The route for the remote tunnel endpoint cannot use the tunnel interface as the next hop. If this happens the tunnel will bounce.

1. The basic operations of GR are that it allows uninterrupted packet forwarding and temporary suppression of all routing protocol updates. It also enables a router to pass throuh intermediate convergence states that are hidden from the rest of the network.
2. The key benefit to a graceful routing engine switch over is it allows a Junos device with redundant REs to continue to forward packets even if a RE fails.
3. Benefits of using BFD are rapid detection of link failures and once a BFD session is established, BFD continuously sends “hellos” to monitor the link.
4. The purpose of the virtual router in VRRP is the virtual entity that functions as a default router.

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